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2018年成人英語三級議論文的寫作

發布于 2018-05-04 14:46  編輯:XIE
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2018年成人英語三級議論文的寫作


議論文,必須邏輯嚴密,結構清晰,語言洗練,必須論有中心,言而有據。


(一)先有規矩,然后才能從心所欲,不逾矩

議論文的寫作,住往從正反兩方面來論述,且都有其約定俗成的議論模式,即從“主題句一正面論述,反面論述一結論”四大塊去營造文章的基本結構(四塊論)。例如,某題目要求論述“學校規定‘課間學生只能呆在自己的教室里’對嗎?”這一話題。如果作者認為學校的規定不對,他就應該在文章第一塊(段)亮出自己的觀點:There is currently much discussion about whether students should stay in their own classrooms or not during break times. Personally I believe that...。而第二塊應該從正面論述“課間不能只呆在自己的教室里”的理由。比如可以說:I would argue that break times are our only opportunity to choose what we want to do. 第三塊則從反面觀點,即“課間只能呆在自己的教室里”出發,批駁對方觀點或進一步闡述己方觀點。例如可以說:Another reason why people say that students have to stay in their own classes at break times is that it would be difficult to organize dinners. 最后一塊(段)則用不同的語言再次強調已方觀點。乍一看去,議論文“四塊論”仿佛有“八股文”的嫌疑,但“四塊論”符合人的認知規律,所以值得多多模仿和操練。


(二)圍繞中心論述,確保論述的內容直接為主題服務

在上例中,“學生課間時不能只呆在自己的教室里”是主題句,論述時應該緊緊圍繞它。有的同學在寫的時候先說“學生若課間被允許到其他班級活動,就可以交到更多的朋友”,然后又說“交到更多朋友就可以學到更多知識”,“學到更多知識就可以為社會做出更大的貢獻”……這種論述方式貌似環環相扣,承前啟后,實則是中心渙散的流水賬,說到最后,不僅讀者會一頭霧水,連作者自己都會忘了自己在說什么。


(三)確立并寫好論點,并將其置于每一段的段首

整篇文章有整篇文章的中心論點,每一段落有每一段落的分論點。選取論點時要問一問自己:這一論點是否會讓自己信服?如果—個論點連自己都說服不了,就要放棄它。段落論點的呈現不能羞羞答答,猶報琵琶半遮面,也不能深藏不露,讓讀者去總結和歸納,而必須在文章開篇或段落開頭就亮出來。論點置于篇首或段首,才能綱舉目張,也是確保不跑題的前提。以下兩個例子中,第一個結構松散,群龍無首,令讀者不知所云;而第二個例子則中心突出,章法嚴謹。請看:

1.Firstly, it is very convenient in daily life. There are many shops and supermarkets in a city. I can buy everything I need easily in these places. When I am sick, I can easily see a doctor in any clinic or hospital. Transport services are good in a city. when I want to go somewhere, I can take a bus, a train or something else. There are also many kinds of entertainment in a city. Public buildings (such as libraries) and parks can easity be found in a city, too.

2.First. it is convenient and comfortable to live in a city.To begin with, there is good housing in a city, as all the houses and flats are well-equipped with good facilities and surrounded by modern amenities such as places of entertainment, public libraries and parks.

而中心句的寫法也有講究。中心句必須能高度概括所在段落的論據,它的關鍵詞應該在每—個論據中都有重復或適當體現。那種無關痛癢的敘述或說明性的句子,是不適宜用作中心句的。例如:

1.Students always feel relaxed and happy during breaks.(敘述性句子)

2.Break times are scheduled for about 10 minutes.(說明性句子)

以下即是論述“學校規定‘課間學生只能呆在自己的班級里’對嗎?”的一篇學生習作:

Although some people believe that students should stay in their own classrooms during break times, I would like to argue that we should be allowed to spend break times in another class.

The most important reason for believing that is that many students have friends in other classes. We spend all day in our own classroom, and break times are the only time we have to spend with other friends. It can become very tedious(令人厭倦的)to have to spend even more time with the same people.

A further reason for allowing student to choose where they spend their break times is that it would stop arguements. If students are forced to spend time with classmates who are not good friends, they can annoy each other.This leads to problems that have to be sorted out by teachers.

Teachers argue that we all should stay in our own classes, because it is then easier to know what is going on.They say that it is difficult to keep track of students when they are walking round the corridors. However, students could be given the chance to choose a different classroom to spend the whole break time in. That would mean that there would not be any students in the corridors.

As I have explained, although it might be a little easier to manage when everyone stays in their own classroom, it would make break times happier for all students if they were allowed to choose where they spent their time.

這篇范文符合“四塊論”的基本模式,正反論述兼顧,結構嚴謹,中心突出。


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