微信刷題,考證常用
  • 所屬考試大學英語四級試題庫
  • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section C】
試題內容

   According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may become recognized as the leader of a social group. In the family, traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases, such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally through election or recruitment.
    Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of "natural leaders". It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group.
    Research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to" get things done". Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-beings of a social group's members. Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.
    Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group members. They give others and may discipline group members whoinhibit (阻礙) attainment of the group's goals. Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. As the difference in these two roles suggest,expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from groupmembers; instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals,may enjoy a more distant respect.

1.[單選題]The passage mentions all of the following ways by which people can become leadersEXCEPT_______.
  • A.recruitment
  • B.formal election process
  • C.specific leadership training
  • D.traditional cultural patterns
  • 解題思路:細節題。短文第一段指出了成為領導者的不同方式:traditional cultural patterns,election or recruitment,選項C specific leadership training在文中并沒有提及。故選C。
2.[單選題]The passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on_______.
  • A.ensuring harmonious relationships
  • B.sharing responsibility with group members
  • C.identifying new leaders
  • D.achieving a goal
  • 解題思路:細節題。短文最后兩段主要講述了兩種領導:指導型領導和表達型領導,并指出了他們的不同點。由Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group.和Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group可知指導型領導重視團隊任務的完成,關心團隊目標,而表達型領導卻不是這樣。故選項D正確。  
3.[單選題]Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from Paragraph 2?
  • A.A person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.
  • B.Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.
  • C.A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.
  • D.Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.
  • 解題思路:推斷題。短文第二段指出It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common;即似乎并不是所有的領導者都有同樣的個人素質。由此可推斷出某一個團隊的優秀領導可能并不適合另外的團隊。故選項A正確。
4.[單選題]What does the passage mainly discuss?
  • A.The problems faced by leaders.
  • B.How leadership differs in small and large groups.
  • C.How social groups determine who will lead them.
  • D.The role of leaders in social groups.
  • 解題思路:主旨題。文章主要講述不同的領導者(如instrumental leaders以及expressive leaders)在不同的社會群體中所充當的角色和發揮的功能。所以D為正確答案。選項A、B、C都不能正確概括本文主旨。
5.[單選題]In mentioning "natural leaders" in Line 7, the author is making the point that_____.
  • A.few people qualify as "natural leaders"
  • B.there is no proof that "natural leaders" exist
  • C."natural leaders" are easily accepted by the members of a group
  • D."natural leaders" share a similar set of characteristics
  • 解題思路:細節題。由題干可定位至第二段decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence thatthere is any category of “natural leaders”.即近幾十年的研究發現并沒有哪一類人是“天生的領導”。故選項B正確。
大學英語四級在線題庫
  • 參考答案:C,D,A,D,B
2019二肖中特顶尖一吗