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試題內容
Beauty and Body Image in the Media A) Images of female bodies are everywhere. Women--and their body parts--sell everything from food to cars.Popular film and television actresses are becoming younger, taller and thinner.Some have even been known to faint on the set from lack of food. Women' s magazines are full of articles urging that if they can just lose those last twenty pounds, they' 11 have it all--the perfect marriage, loving children,great sex, and a rewarding career.
B) Why are standards of beauty being imposed on women, the majority of whom are naturally larger and more mature than any of the models? The roots, some analysts say, are economic. By presenting an ideal difficult to achieve and maintain, the cosmetic and diet product industries are assured of growth and profits. And it' s no accident that youth is increasingly promoted, along with thinness, as an essential criterion of beauty. If not all women need to lose weight, for sure they're all aging, says the Quebec Action Network for Women's Health in its 2001 report.And, according to the industry, age is a disaster that needs to be dealt with.
C) The stakes are huge. On the one hand,women who are insecure about their bodies are more likely to buy beauty products, new clothes, and diet aids. It is estimated that the diet industry alone is worth anywhere between 40 to 100 billion (U.S.) a year selling temporary weight loss (90% to 95% of dieters regain the lost weight). On the other hand, research indicates that exposure to images of thin, young,air-brushed female bodies is linked to depression, loss of self-esteem and the development of unhealthy eating habits in women and girls.
D) The American research group Anorexia Nervosa & Related Eating Disorders, Inc. says that one out of every four college-aged women uses unhealthy methods of weight control--including fasting,skipping meals, excessive exercise, laxative ( 瀉藥) abuse, and self-induced vomiting. The pressure to be thin is also affecting young girls:the Canadian Women's Health Network warns that weight control measures are now being taken by girls as young as 5 and 6. American stat is-tics are similar.Several studies, such as one conducted by Marika Tiggemann and Levina Clark in 2006 titled" Appearance Culture in 9-to-12-Year-Old Girls: Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction," indicate that nearly half of all preadolescent girls wish to be thinner, and as a result have engaged in a diet or are aware of the concept of dieting. In 2003, Teen magazine reported that 35 percent of girls 6 to 12 years old have been on at least one diet, and that 50 to 70percent of normal weight girls believe they are overweight. Overall research indicates that 90%of women are dissatisfied with their appearance in some way. Media activist Jean Kilbourne concludes that, "Women are sold tothe diet industry by the magazines we read and the televise on programs we watch, almost all of which make us feel anxious about our weight."
E) Perhaps the most disturbing is the factthat media images of female beauty are unattainable for all but a very small number of women. Researchers generating a computer model of a woman with Barbie-doll proportions, for example, found that her back would be too weak to support the weight of her upper body, and her body would be too narrow to contain more than half aliver and a few centimeters of bowel. A real woman built that way would suffer from chronic diarrhea(慢性腹瀉)and eventually die from malnutrition. Jill Barad, President of Mattel (which manufactures Barbie), estimated that 99% of girls aged 3 to 10years old own at least one Barbie doll. Still, the number of real life women and girls who seek a similarly underweight body is epidemic, and they can suffer equally devastating health consequences. In 2006 it was estimated that up to 450,000 Canadian women were affected by an eating disorder.
F) Researchers report that women's magazines have ten and one-half times more ads and articles promoting weight loss than men's magazines do, and over three-quarters of the covers of women's magazines include at least one message about how to change a woman's bodily appearance-by diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery. Television and movies reinforce the importance of a thin body as a measure of a woman' s worth.Canadian researcher Gregory Fouts reports that over three-quarters of the female characters in TV situation comedies are underweight, and only one in twenty are above average in size. Heavier actresses tend to receive negative comments from male characters about their bodies ("How about wearing a sack?), and 80 percent of these negative comments are followed by canned audience laughter.
G) There have been efforts in the magazine industry to buck (抵制,反抗)the trend. For several years the Quebec magazine Coup de Pouce has consistently included full-sized women in their fashion pages and Chatelaine has pledged not to touch up photos and not to include models less than 25 years of age. In Madrid, one of the world's biggest fashion capitals, ultra-thin models were banned from the runway in 2006. Furthermore Spain has recently undergone a project with the aim to standardize clothing sizes through using a unique process in which a laser beam is used to measure real life women' s bodies in order to find the most true to life measurement.
H) Another issue is the representation of ethnically diverse women in the media. A 2008 study conducted by Juanita Covertand Travis Dixon titled "A Changing View: Representation and Effects of the Portrayal of Women of Color in Mainstream Women's Magazines" found that although there was an increase in the representation of women of color,overall white women were over represented in mainstream women' s magazines from 1999 to 2004.
I) The barrage of messages about thinness,dieting and beauty tells "ordinary" women that they are always in need of adjustment--and that the female body is an object to be perfected. Jean Kilbourne argues that the overwhelming presence of media images of painfully thin women means that real women's bodies have become invisible in the mass media. The real tragedy, Kilbourne concludes, is that many women internalize these stereotypes, and judge themselves by the beauty industry's standards.Women learn to compare themselves to other women, and to compete with them for male attention. This focus on beauty and desirability "effectively destroys any awareness and action that might help to change that climate."
1.[選詞填空]For 6 years white women had been taking more space in mainstream women' s magazines.
    • 解題思路:連續6年,白人女性都占據了主流女性雜志的大量篇幅。題干關鍵詞6 years和mainstream women’s magazines。文中H段最后一句提到,從1999年到2004年,雖然有色婦女的代表在增加,但是主流雜志上大部分仍是白人女性。與題干符合,故選H。
    2.[選詞填空]A real woman with Barbie-doll proportions would eventually die from malnutrition.
      • 解題思路:如果一個女人的身材比例和芭比娃娃一樣,那么她最終會因為營養不良而死。題干關鍵詞Barbie-doll proportions和die from malnutrition。文中只有E段提到了芭比娃娃,前兩句寫了對芭比娃娃身體的研究。第三句提到,如果一個真正的女人有那樣的身材的話,會遭受慢性腹瀉的困擾,并且最終會因為營養不良而死。與題干意思吻合,故選E。
      3.[選詞填空]The mass media has helped the development of cosmetic and diet industries.
        • 解題思路:大眾媒體促進了化妝品和減肥產品行業的發展。題干關鍵詞development和cosmetic and the diet industries。文中B段第三句提到,通過展示一些很難達到和保持的理想身材,化妝品和減肥產品行業一定能夠得到發展,并且獲得利潤。而這些理想的模型正是通過大眾媒體呈現的。與題干意思吻合,故選B。
        4.[選詞填空]Some film and television actresses even faint on the scene due to eating too little.
          • 解題思路:有些影視女演員甚至因為吃得太少而在拍攝現場昏倒。題干關鍵詞film and television actresses和faint。文中A段第四句提到有些人因為飲食過少,而在拍攝現場暈倒:與題干意思吻合,故選A。
          5.[選詞填空]Too much concern with appearance makes it difficult to change such abnormal trend.
            • 解題思路:過度關注外表,使改變不正常的風氣更加困難。題干關鍵詞concern with appearance和abnormal trend。文中I段最后一句提到,對于美麗和性感的關注,實際上摧毀了任何有助于改變這種風氣的意識和行動的可能性。與題干意思吻合,故選I。
            6.[選詞填空]Unhealthy eating habits in females are related to their being exposed to images of thin and young female bodies.
              • 解題思路:女性不健康的飲食習慣與接觸年輕苗條的女性形象有關:題干關鍵詞unhealthy eating habits和thin and young bodies。文中C段最后一句提到,另一方面,調查顯示展示苗條、年輕的女性形象和抑郁、缺乏自信,不健康的飲食習慣有關。與題干意思吻合,故選C。
              7.[選詞填空]In 2003, Teen magazine reported that 35 percent of girls 6 to 12 years old are on a diet, and more than 50% of them think they should lose weight.
                • 解題思路:2003年《青少年》雜志上的一項報道稱,35%的 6到12歲的女孩正在節食,并且他們中的多半人認為自己應該減肥。題干關鍵詞in 2003,35 percent和lose weight。D段倒數第三句提到,在2003年,《青少年》雜志報道,有35%的 6到12歲的女孩在節食,有50%到 70%的體重正常的女孩覺得自己超重了。與題干意思吻合,故選D。
                8.[選詞填空]According to some analysts, economic profits is the fundamental reason of imposing standards of beauty on women.
                  • 解題思路:根據一些分析家的觀點,將美麗的標準強加到女性身上的根本原因是經濟利益。題干關鍵詞fundamental reason。standards of beauty和economic profits。文中B段,第一句問,為什么會把美麗的標準強加到女性身上,而大多數女性生來就比模特要胖、要成熟?接下來提到,一些分析家認為,根源是經濟利益。與題干意思吻合,故選B。
                  9.[選詞填空]The Quebec magazine Coup de Pouce opposes the trend by including full-sized women in their fashion pages for several years.
                    • 解題思路:有幾年,Quebec雜志Coup de Pouce堅持在其時尚頁面上刊登正常身材的女性形象,以抵制這種潮流。題干關鍵詞The Quebec magazine和full.Sized women。文中提到該雜志的段落出現在G段。G段第一、二句提到,雜志業有人正在努力抵制這種潮流。幾年來Quebec雜志Coup de Pouce堅持在其時尚頁面上刊登正常身材的女性形象。與題干意思吻合,故選G。
                    10.[選詞填空]At least one message about the methods of changing bodily appearance on more than three-quarters of the covers of women's magazines.
                      • 解題思路:據報道,超過四分之三的女性雜志封面至少包含了一條關于如何改變女性身材的方法。題干關鍵詞three.quarters和at least one message。文中F段第一句提到,研究人員公布說,女性雜志上宣傳減肥的廣告和文章所占的比重比男性雜志高10.5倍,超過四分之三的女性雜志封面至少包含了一條關于如何改變女性身材的信息——諸如節食、運動或者整容手術。與題干意思吻合,故選F。
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                      • 參考答案:H,E,B,A,I,C,D,B,G,F
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