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試題內容

Passage Two

 Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

    Massive rubbish dumps and sprawling landfills constitute one of the more uncomfortable impacts that humans have on wildlife. They have led some birds to give up on migration. Instead of flying thousands of miles in search of food, they make the waste sites their winter feeding grounds.

     Researchers in Germany used miniature GPS tags to track the migrations of 70 white storks (鸛) from different sites across Europe and Asia during the first five months of their lives. While many birds travelled along well-known routes to warmer climates, others stopped short and spent the winter on landfills, feeding on food waste, and the multitudes of insects that thrive on the dumps.

    In the short-term, the birds seem to benefit from overwintering(過冬) on rubbish dumps. Andrea Flack of the Max Planck Institute found that birds following traditional migration routes were more likely to die than German storks that flew only as far as northern Morocco, and spent the winter there on rubbish dumps. “For the birds it’s a very convenient way to get food. There are huge clusters of organic waste they can feed on,” said Flack. The meals are not particularly appetising, or even safe. Much of the waste is discarded rotten meat, mixed in with other human debris such as plastic bags and old toys.

    “It’s very risky. The birds can easily eat pieces of plastic or rubber bands and they can die,” said Flack. “And we don’t know about the long-term consequences. They might eat something toxic and damage their health. We cannot estimate that yet.”

     The scientists tracked white storks from different colonies in Europe and Africa. The Russian, Greek and Polish storks flew as far as South Africa, while those from Spain, Tunisia and Germany flew only as far as the Sahel.

    Landfill sites on the Iberian peninsula have long attracted local white storks, but all of the Spanish birds tagged in the study flew across the Sahara desert to the western Sahel. Writing in the journal, the scientists describe how the storks from Germany were clearly affected by the presence of waste sites, with four out of six birds that survived for at least five months overwintering on rubbish dumps in northern Morocco, instead of migrating to the Sahel.

     Flack said it was too early to know whether the benefits of plentiful food outweighed the risks of feeding on landfills. But that’s not the only uncertainty. Migrating birds affect ecosystems both at home and at their winter destinations, and disrupting the traditional routes could have unexpected side effects. White storks feed on locusts (蝗蟲) and other insects that can become pests if their numbers get out of hand. “They provide a useful service,” said Flack.

1.[單選題]What is scientists’ other concern about white storks feeding on landfills?
  • A.The potential harm to the ecosystem.
  • B.The genetic change in the stork species.
  • C.The spread of epidemics to their homeland.
  • D.The damaging effect on bio-diversity.
  • 解題思路:由題干中的 scientists’ other concern 和 white storks feeding on landfills 定位到文章末段第三句。該句指出,正在遷徙的鳥類對其繁殖地和過冬地的生態系統都會產生影響,而中斷傳統路線可能還會產生意想不到 的副作用,由此可知,對于以垃圾填埋場為生的白鸛,科學家們擔心它們對生態系統造成潛在危害,故答案為A).
2.[單選題]What do we learn about birds following the traditional migration routes?
  • A.They can multiply at an accelerating rate.
  • B.They can better pull through the winter.
  • C.They help humans kill harmful insects.
  • D.They are more likely to be at risk of dying.
  • 解題思路:由題干中的following the traditional migration routes定位到文章第三段第二句。該句指出,馬克斯普朗 克研究所的安德里亞?弗拉克發現,按照傳統遷徙路線飛行的鳥類死亡的可能性比只飛到摩洛哥北部并在 那里的垃圾堆上過冬的德國白鸛更大,故答案為D)。
3.[單選題]What can be inferred about the Spanish birds tagged in the study?
  • A.They gradually lose the habit of migrating in winter.
  • B.They prefer rubbish dumps far away to those at home.
  • C.They are not attracted to the rubbish dumps on their migration routes.
  • D.They join the storks from Germany on rubbish dumps in Morocco.
  • 解題思路:由題干中的the Spanish birds tagged in the study定位到文章第六段首句。該句指出,伊比利亞半島上的 垃圾填埋場長期吸引著當地的白鸛,但這項研究中所有有標簽的西班牙白鸛都飛越撒哈拉沙漠來到薩赫勒 西部。伊比利亞半島是西班牙所在地,而薩赫勒西部地處遙遠的非洲。由此可知,這項研究中貼有標簽的所 有西班牙白鸛未受遷徙路線上垃圾填埋場的干擾,故選C)。
4.[單選題]What does Andrea Flack say about the birds overwintering on rubbish dumps?
  • A.They may end up staying there permanently.
  • B.They may eat something harmful.
  • C.They may evolve new feeding habits.
  • D.They may have trouble getting adequate food.
  • 解題思路:根據題干中的Andrea Flack和the birds overwintering on rubbish dumps定位到文章第四段。該段指出,弗拉克說道,在垃圾堆里過冬的那些鳥兒很容易吃掉塑料或橡皮筋碎片,并有可能死亡,它們可能會吃到一些有毒 的東西,損害健康。由此可知,弗拉克表示在垃圾堆里的那些鳥兒可能會吃到有害的東西,故答案為B)。
5.[單選題]What is the impact of rubbish dumps on wildlife?
  • A.They have forced white storks to search for safer winter shelters.
  • B.They have seriously polluted the places where birds spend winter.
  • C.They have accelerated the reproduction of some harmful insects.
  • D.They have changed the previous migration habits of certain birds.
  • 解題思路:由題干中的the impact of rubbish dumps和wildlife定位到文章第一段前兩句。這兩句指出,大童的垃圾 堆和四處蔓延的垃圾填埋場是人類對野生動物造成的不良的影響之一,它們已導致一些鳥類放棄遷徙=由 此可知,垃圾堆對野生動物造成的影響是它們改變了某些鳥類以前的遷徙習性’故答案為D)。
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  • 參考答案:A,D,C,B,D
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