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  • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section B】
Section B
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
When Work Becomes a Game  
    (A) What motivates employees to do their jobs well? Competition with coworkers, for some. The promise of rewards, for others. Pure enjoyment of problem-solving, for a lucky few.
  (B) Increasingly, companies are tapping into these desires directly through what’s come to be known as “gamification:” essentially, turning work into a game.“Gamification is about understanding what it is that makes games engaging and what game designers do to create a great experience in games, and taking those learnings and applying them to other contexts such as the workplace and education,” explains Kevin Werbach, a gamification expert who teaches at the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States.
  (C) It might mean monitoring employee productivity on a digital leaderboard and offering prizes to the winners, or giving employees digital badges or stars for completing certain activities. It could also mean training employees how to do their jobs through video game platforms. Companies from Google to L’Oréal to IBM to Wells Fargo are known to use some degree of gamification in their workplaces. And more and more companies are joining them. A recent report suggests that the global gamification market will grow from $1.65 billion in 2015 to $11.1 billion by 2020.
  (D) The concept of gamification is not entirely new, Werbach says. Companies, marketers and teachers have long looked for fun ways to engage people’s reward-seeking or competitive spirits. Cracker Jacks has been “gamifying” its snack food by putting a small prize inside for more than 100 years, he adds, and the turn-of-the-century steel magnate Charles Schwab is said to have often come into his factory and written the number of tons of steel produced on the past shift on the factory floor, thus motivating the next shift of workers to beat the previous one.
  (E) But the word “gamification” and the widespread, conscious application of the concept only began in earnest about five years ago, Werbach says. Thanks in part to video games, the generation now entering the workforce is especially open to the idea of having their work gamified.“We’re at a point where in much of the developed world the vast majority of young people grew up playing [video] games, and an increasingly high percentage of adults play these video games too,” Werbach says.
  (F) A number of companies have sprung up—GamEffective, Bunchball and Badgeville, to name a few—in recent years offering gamification platforms for businesses. The platforms that are most effective turn employees’ ordinary job tasks into part of a rich adventure narrative. “What makes a game game-like is that the player actually cares about the outcome,” Werbach says. “The principle is understanding what is motivating to this group of players, which requires some understanding of psychology.”
  (G) Some people, Werbach says, are motivated by competition. Sales people often fall into this category. For them, the right kind of gamification might be turning their sales pitches into a competition with other team members, complete with a digital leaderboard showing who’s winning at all times. Others are more motivated by collaboration and social experiences. One company Werbach has studied uses gamification to create a sense of community and boost employee morale. When employees log in to their computers, they’re shown a picture of one of their coworkers and asked to guess that person’s name.
  (H) Gamification does not have to be digital. Monica Cornetti runs a company that gamifies employee trainings. Sometimes this involves technology, but often it does not. She recently designed a gamification strategy for a sales training company with a storm-chasing theme. Employees formed “storm chaser teams” and competed in storm-themed educational exercises to earn various rewards.“Rewards don’t have to be stuff,” Cornetti says. “Rewards can be flextime. Rewards can be extension time.”Another training, this one for pay roll law, used a Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs theme. Snow White is public domain, but the dwarfs are still under copyright, so Cornetti invented sound-alike characters (Grumpy Gus, Dopey Dan) to illustrate specific pay roll law principles.
  (I) Some people don’t take as naturally to gamified work environments, Cornetti says. In her experience, people in positions of power or people in finance or engineering don’t tend to like the sound of the word.“If we’re designing for engineers, I’m not talking about a ‘game’ at all,” Cornetti says. “I’m talking about a ‘simulation,’ I’m talking about ‘being able to solve this problem.’”
  (J) Gamification is “not a magic bullet,” Werbach cautions. A gamification strategy that’s not sufficiently thought through or tailored to its players may engage people for a little while, but it won’t motivate in the long term. It can also be exploitative, especially when used with vulnerable populations. For workers, especially low-paid workers, who desperately need their jobs yet know they can be easily replaced, gamification may feel more like the Hunger Games. Werbach gives the example of several Disneyland hotels in Anaheim, California, which used large digital leaderboards to display how efficiently laundry workers were working compared to one another. Some employees found the board motivating. To others, it was the opposite of fun. Some began to skip bathroom breaks, worried that if their productivity fell they would be fired. Pregnant employees struggled to keep up. In a Los Angeles Times article, one employee referred to the board as a “digital whip.”“It actually had a very negative effect on morale and performance,” Werbach says.
  (K) Still, gamification only stands to become more popular, he says, “as more and more people come into the workforce who are intuitively familiar with the structures and expressions of digital games.”“We are way ahead of the tipping point,” Cornetti agrees. “There’s no reason this will go away.”
1.[選詞填空]The idea of gamification was practiced by some businesses more than a century ago.
    • 解題思路:定位由題干中的gamification和more than a century ago 可定位到D段。點睛本段提到一些公司通過輕松愉悅的方式來激發員工追求回報和競爭的精神,比如Cracker Jacks食品公司一百多年來就一直運用“游戲思維”,把小額獎品放入零食中。所以D項正確。
    2.[選詞填空]Gamification in employee training does not always need technology.
      • 解題思路:定位根據題干中的關鍵詞employee training和technology定位H段。點睛本段提到游戲化不一定需要數字技術。莫尼卡·科尼特經營一家用游戲方式培訓員工的公司,有時候這需要數字技術,但通常不需要。因此選H項。
      3.[選詞填空]To enhance morale, one company asks its employees to identify their fellow workers when starting their computers.
        • 解題思路:定位 由題干中的enhance morale和starting their computers可定位G段。點睛 該段指出工作中游戲的好處:游戲化可以鼓舞員工。題干中的enhance morale 和starting their computers是原文中boost employees' morale和log in to their computers的同義轉述,因此選G。
        4.[選詞填空]It is necessary to use terms other than "gamification" for some professions.
          • 解題思路:定位由題干中關鍵詞中的terms和some professions定位到I段。點睛本段第二句提到“有些人,比如有權力者或者從事金融或工程的人就不喜歡“游戲化”這種表述,他們更喜歡使用“模擬”或者“解決問題”這樣的表達,因此答案為I。
          5.[選詞填空]Video games contributed in some ways to the wide application of gamification.
            • 解題思路:定位由題干中的Video games和application of gamification定位到E段。點睛該段提到發達國家的許多年輕人都是伴隨著電子游戲長大的,他們更容易接受游戲化思維。因此選E項。
            6.[選詞填空]Gamification is not a miracle cure for all workplaces as it may have negative results.
              • 解題思路:定位由題干中的關鍵詞not a miracle cure和negative results定位到J段。點睛本段旨在說明工作游戲化的負面影響,即濫用游戲化會影響員工的工作熱情。題干中not a miracle cure對應原文中的not a magic bullet,negative results對應原文中的negative effect on morale and performance,故答案為J。
              7.[選詞填空]Some famous companies are already using gamification and more are trying to do the same.
                • 解題思路:定位由題干中的famous companies和gamification定位C段。點睛該段提到銀行等知名公司都不同程度地運用了游戲化思維,第四句話寫到越來越多的公司將會加入到游戲化行列。題干中的famous companies對應原文中的Companies from Google to L'Oreal to IBM to Wells Fargo,由此可知,C項正確。
                8.[選詞填空]When mining work into a game, it is necessary to understand what makes games interesting.
                  • 解題思路:定位根據題干中的turning work to a game 和what makes games interesting定位到B段.點睛本段提出游戲化的概念,并指出游戲化具有激發員工工作熱情的作用。游戲化就是將游戲的機制運用到非游戲活動中,把工作變成一種游戲。故答案為B。
                  9.[選詞填空]There is reason to believe that gamification will be here to stay.
                    • 解題思路:定位由題干中的reason和be here to stay定位到K段點睛該段對游戲化的發展趨勢做了預測。隨著越來越多熟悉電子游戲的人成為勞動力,游戲化社會越來越流行。題干是對原文的同義轉述,故答案為K。
                    10.[選詞填空]The most successful gamification platforms transform daily work assignments into fun experiences.
                      • 解題思路:定位題干中的platforms和transform daily work assignments可定位F段。點睛本段首句提到最近幾年游戲化平臺的產生,之后提到“他們把員工乏味的工作變成有趣的經歷”,故答案為F。
                      • 參考答案:D,H,G,I,E,J,C,B,K,F