微信刷題,考證常用
  • 所屬考試大學英語四級試題庫
  • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section B】
試題內容

Section B
 Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Ancient Greek Wisdom Inspires Guidelines to Good Life

     [A] Is it possible to enjoy a peaceful life in a world that is increasingly challenged by threats and uncertainties from wars, terrorism, economic crises and a widespread outbreak of infectious diseases? The answer is yes, according to a new book The 10 Golden Rules: Ancient Wisdom from the Greek Philosophers on Living a Good Life. The book is co-authored by Long Island University’s philosophy professor Michael Soupios and economics professor Panos Mourdoukoutas.

  [B] The wisdom of the ancient Greek philosophers is timeless, says Soupios. The philosophy professor says it is as relevant today as when it was first written many centuries ago. “There is no expiration(失效) date on wisdom,” he says. “There is no shelf life on intelligence. I think that things have become very gloomy these days, lots of misunderstanding, misleading cues, a lot of what the ancients would have called sophistry(詭辯). The nice thing about ancient philosophy as offered by the Greeks is that they tended to see life clear and whole, in a way that we tend not to see life today.”

  Examine your life

  [C] Soupies, along with his co-author Panos Mourdoukoutas, developed their 10 golden rules by turning to the men behind that philosophy-Aristotle, Socrates, Epictetus and Pythagoras, among others. The first rule-examine your life-is the common thread that runs through the entire book. Soupios says that it is based on Plato’s observation that the unexamined life is not worth living. “The Greek are always concerned about boxing themselves in, in terms of convictions(信念),” he says. “So take a step back, switch off the automatic pilot and actually stop and reflect about things like our priorities, our values, and our relationships.”

  Stop worrying about what you cannot control

  [D] As we begin to examine our life, Soupios says, we come to Rule No.2: Worry only about things that you can control. “The individual who promoted this idea was a Stoic philosopher. His name is Epictetus,” he says. “And what the Stoics say in general is simply this. There is a larger plan in life. You are not really going to be able to understand all of the dimensions of this plan. You are not going to be able to control the dimensions of this plan.”

  [E] So, Soupios explains, it is not worth it to waste our physical, intellectual and spiritual energy worrying about things that are beyond our control. “I cannot control whether or not I wind up getting the disease swine flu, for example,” he says. “I mean, there are some cautious steps. I can take, but ultimately I cannot guarantee myself that. So what Epictetus would say is sitting at home worrying about that would be wrong and wasteful and irrational. You should live your life attempting to identify and control those things which you can genuinely control.”

  Seek true pleasure

  [F] To have a meaningful, happy life we need friends. But according to Aristotle—a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great—most relationships don’t qualify as true friendships. “Just because I have a business relationship with an individual and I can profit from that relationship, it does not necessarily mean that this person is my friend,” Soupios says. “Real friendship is when two individuals share the same soul. It is a beautiful and uncharacteristically poetic image that Aristotle offers.”

  [G] In our pursuit of the good life, he says, it is important to seek out true pleasures-advice which was originally offered by Epicurus. But unlike the modern definition of Epicureanism as a life of indulgence(放縱) and luxury, for the ancient Greeks, it meant finding a state of calm, peace and mental ease.

  [H] “This was the highest and most desirable form of pleasure and happiness for the ancient Epicureans.” Soupios says. “This is something that is very much well worth considering here in the modern era. I do not think that we spend nearly enough time trying to concentrate on achieving a sort of calmness, a sort of contentment in mental and spiritual, which was identified by these people as the highest form of happiness and pleasure.”

  Do good to others

  [I] Other golden rules counsel us to master ourselves, to avoid excess and not to be a prosperous (發跡的) fool. There are also rules dealing with interpersonal relationships. Be a responsible human being and do not do evil things to others.

  [J] “This is Hesiod, of course, a younger contemporary poet, we believe, with Homer,” Soupios says. “Hesiod offers an idea—which you very often find in some of the world’s great religions, in the Judeo-Christian tradition and in Islam and others—that in some sense, when you hurt another human being, you hurt yourself. That damaging other people in your community and in your life, trashing relationships, results in a kind of self-inflicted(自己招致的) spiritual wound.”

  [K] Instead, Soupios says, ancient wisdom urges us to do good. Golden Rule No.10 for a good life is that kindness toward others tends to be rewarded.

  [L] “This is Aesop, the fabulist (寓言家), the man of these charming little tales, often told in terms of animals and animal relationships,” he says. “I think what Aesop was suggesting is that when you offer a good turn to another human being, one can hope that that good deed will come back and sort of pay a profit to you, the doer of the good deed. Even if there is no concrete benefit paid in response to you good deed, at the very least, the doer of the good deed has the opportunity to enjoy a kind of spiritually enlightened moment.”

  [M] Soupios say following the 10 Golden Rules based on ancient wisdom can guide us to the path of the good life where we stop living as onlookers and become engaged and happier human beings. And that, he notes, is a life worth living.

1.[選詞填空]Not all your business partners are your soul mates.
    • 解題思路:定位由題干中的business和soul mates可定位到F段。
      點睛該段提到:僅僅因為我和一個人建立了商業合作關系,我可以從這段關系中受益,這并不就意味著這個人是我的朋友。而且真正的友誼在于兩個人共享一個靈魂。由此可知,商業伙伴并不全是你的靈魂伴侶。因此選F段。
    2.[選詞填空]The wise teachings of ancient Greek thinkers are timeless, and are applicable to contemporary life.
      • 解題思路:定位由題干中的timeless以及結合語意可定位到B段。
        點睛該段提到:古希臘哲學家的智慧是永恒的。哲學教授稱這智慧在今天仍然與我們相關。由此可知,古希臘思想家智慧的教諭是永恒的,在現代社會同樣適用。因此選B段。
      3.[選詞填空]We can live a peaceful life despite the various challenges of the modern world.
        • 解題思路:定位由題干中的peaceful和challenges可定位到A段。
          點睛該段提到:在一個日益遭受來自戰爭、恐怖主義、經濟危機和普遍爆發的傳染 病等威脅和不確定因素挑戰的世界里,過上和平的生活有可能嗎?在一本新發行的書中,其答案是肯定的。由此可知,盡管在現代社會會面臨各種挑戰,但是我們仍有希望過上和平的生活。因此選A段。
        4.[選詞填空]Ancient philosophers strongly advise that we do good.
          • 解題思路:定位由題干中的strongly advise和do good可定位到K段。
            點睛該段提到:古代智慧鼓勵我們與人為善。由此可知,古代哲學家強烈建議我們行善事。因此選K段。
          5.[選詞填空]The doer of a good deed can feel spiritually rewarded even when they gain no concrete benefits.
            • 解題思路:定位由題干中的the doer of a good deed、benefits和spiritually可定位到L段。
              點睛該段提到:即使沒有實質性的利益來償還你的善舉,至少于行善之人而言,他有機會享受到了精神上的通明。由此可知,因此選L段。
            6.[選詞填空]Ancient Philosophers saw life in a different light from people of today.
              • 解題思路:定位由題干中的in a different light可定位到B段。
                點睛該段提到:古希臘哲學的優點在于他們傾向于用一種清晰而又完整的視角看待生活,今天的我們往往不會用這樣的方式看待生活。由此可知,古代哲學家以一種不同于我們今天的視角看待生活。因此選B段。
              7.[選詞填空]Do harm to others and you do harm to yourself.
                • 解題思路:定位根據語意可定位到J段。
                  點睛該段提到:在某種意義上,傷害別人的同時也是在傷害你自己。由此可知,傷害別人就等于傷害自己。因此選J段。
                8.[選詞填空] Michael Soupios suggests that we should stop and think carefully about our priorities in life.
                  • 解題思路:定位由題干中的stop和priorities可定位到C段。
                    點睛該段提到:索皮奧斯說,我們應該真正地停下來去反思一些事物,比如我們優先考慮的事項、我們的價值觀以及人際關系。由此可知,邁克爾·索皮奧斯建議我們停下來認真思考我們在生活中以什么為優先。因此選C段。
                  9.[選詞填空]According to an ancient Greek philosopher, it is impossible for us to understand every aspect of our life.
                    • 解題思路:定位由題干中的impossible和understand every aspect of our life可定位到D段。
                      點睛該段提到:你無法真正理解生活這個計劃的所有的維度。你也無法控制這個計劃的各方各面。由此可知,我們不可能理解生活的方方面面。因此選D段。
                    10.[選詞填空]How to achieve mental calmness and contentment is well worth our consideration today.
                      • 解題思路:定位由題干中的mental calmness和contentment可定位到H段。
                        點睛該段提到:在現在這個時代,有一種東西非常值得我們的深思。那就是我們沒能花足夠的時間關注于去實現一種平靜的狀態,一種思想和精神的滿足。由此可知,如何實現精神上的平和與滿足值得我們今天每一個人的深思。因此選H段。
                      大學英語四級在線題庫
                      • 參考答案:F,B,A,K,L,B,J,C,D,H
                      2019二肖中特顶尖一吗